Snack's 1967

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He said, "for what purpose do tathagatas arise in the world?" the Blessed One said: " Bhaishajya-sèna, those who are posseded of much learning and highly knowledgeable know the arising of tathagatas. Once they know of the arising of tathagatas to be a source of happiness. At the time when tathagatas arise in the world,sentient beings know all dharmas. Through skill means, they know the dharmas. They know mundane and supramundane phenomena. He said, "having realized wisdom itself, what nirvana do they seek out?" the Blessed One said: "Baishajya-sèna, once they have thoroughly understood the Dharma, they thoroughly know the Dharma. Bhaishajya-sèna, similarely, once they have thoroughly know the holy Dharma in a condensed form, the first attainment arises. Keeping in mind the Dharma just they have heard it, they will attain the possession of Dharma. Bhaishajya-sèna, it is as follows: to make an analogy, a man became a trader, took a thousand-man load of gold and set off seeking profit. His parents say to him, 'son, listen take this thousand coin load of gold. Carry well this gold of ours and of others". That trader carried away the gold, and by the time a month had passed, he had squandered all tha gold. After it was gone, the man reflected and became extremely unhappy. He was pierced with great agonizing pains in his heart. He was filled with remorse and shame, and did not go to his own home. His parents heard of this and fell into despair their hearts were pierced with great agonizing pains, and even their clothes were torn 'this bad son was born into our household in the form of a son, and also destroyed our household's entire capacity to sustain itself. He has been useless to us, and we have been made to suffer. He has forced us into work as servants.' Speaking thus, they lamented. After his parents had fallen into despair, they died. Then, hearing t.That his parents had despaired of him and died, the son also fell into despair and died in just the same way, Bhaishajya-sèna, although the tathagata explain these matters, those who have no faith in my teaching was lose hope and their time of death, they will die with their hearts perced with great agonizing pains. Just ase those parents fell into despair and suffered because of the gold, and had their hearts pierced with great agonizing pains because of their own and other's gold,in the same way too, Bhaishajya-sèna, those who have no faith in my teachings afterwards at their time of death are tormented and cry out in lamentation. They experience painful feelings, and after they have wasted the merits they previously created, they do not later create the merit that is associated with good field. Because they have great agonizing pains piercing their hearts, at that time, at that moment, once they have seen the ceaseless, cruel places of rebirth in hell and as animals, and the realm of rebirth in the world of Yama, at their time of death they will think thus: "who will be my protector so that i will not see the worlds of hell being, animals, pretas, and Yama, and so that i will not experience those painful feelings?." That one's parents will say: "child! The greatly terrifying thing that is illness cannot come about. How could that be? Although those who are dying fear sickness, in your case, son, there is no death. From the fear and terror of disease you will be set free.' "my consciousness is ceasing. My body too is badly damaged, all my limbs are in pain. I am coming to see my death. My eyes do not see, and my ears do not hear. Nor will anything reach my nose. My body has no endurance. My body is pained from limb to limb. Just like a tree, i am mindless saying my death is not nearing, mother, please just cheer me up.' the mother said: son, it is not right that you say that. Do not frighten me so badly. Since your body is wracked with a plague you will see all sorts of things." The son said: "But i see no plague in my body. I have no sickness and no pain. I see extremely unbearable death my beloved body will be destroyed. Since i have seen my whole body destroyed. Since i have seen my whole body overpowered by suffering, to whom will i go for refuge? Who will be my protector?" The parents said, "son, a deva must be punishing you but if offerings are made to the deva, after that, you will recover." The son said: "whatever will make me recover, i ask you please to do just that, please go quickly and make haste and make inquiries to the priest.At that, his parents went before the altar of the deva, and gave incense for the deva. Then the priest offered the incense to the deva, and said the following: 'the deva is punishing you; therefore you must honor the deva. Sacrifice to the deva, kill livestock, kill a man, too, and then your son will be released from his illness.' at that, those parents thought: 'But we are poor. What can we do? If we don't appease the deva, our son will die. If we rare to appease him, since we're poor, from where will we get a person and livestock?' with these thoughts, they made haste and quickly went home. They took the few household items of any substance that they possessed, to sell in order to buy livestock. After that they approached another man. "sir, if you could give us some gold on loan and we are able to pay back in ten days, that would be good. But if we are unable to pay it, we agree now to become your servants and do work'. They said this, and then the two of them carried off that gold and went to buy a man. The two of them bought a man, but that man did not know that he would be killed. At that, the parents became confused and did not return to their home. Instead, they went before the altar and said to the priest, 'quick, make the sacrificial offering.' then the two parents killed the livestock them selves, and they also killed the man. Then the priest, intending to make the sacrificial offering, kindled a fire, and at that, the deva descended and said, 'i have accepted your son' then the parents overflowed with joy and elation. 'if our son is cured, even if we become servants, that is far superior, they said. After making the sacrifice to the deva, they returned home, and when they arrived there, they saw that their son had died.At that, the two parents, suffering and in deep despair, were pierce through their hearts with great agonizing pains. With their hopes dashed, they died right there, and in just the same way, Bhaishajya-sèna, one should not associate with non-virtuous friends." he said, 'Blessed One, may i ask where those sentient beings were born?' the Blessed One said: 'be quiet, Bhaishajya-sèna. Do not ask me.' he said: 'Blessed One, i ask Sugata, i ask!' the Blessed One said: 'on that occasion, Bhaishajya-sèna, the mother was born in the great hell called the hell of lamentation. The father was born in the great hell called crushing hell, the son was born in the great hell called hot hell. The priest was born in the great hell of avici.' he said: 'Blessed One, where was that innocant man reborn? What was his future life?' the Blessed One said, 'here, was reborn among the devas of the heaven of thirty-three.' He said, 'Blessed One, what was the reason and what the condition for that man to be born equal in fortune to the devas of the heaven of thirty-three?' The Blessed One said: 'listen, Bhaishajya-sèna. That man, at his time of death, with a mind of faith in the tathagata said one time, 'i prostrate to the Buddha' Bhaishajy-sèna, due to that root of virtue, he will experience the happiness of the devas of the thirty-three for six eons. For eighty eons, he will recollect past lives. Life after life, he will be free of all painful sorrows. As soon as he is born, he will ward off all suffering.Those sentient being are all unable to fully overcome sorrow.' He said, 'Blessed One, how will all sentient beings be capable of fully overcoming sorrow?' The Blessed One said, 'Bhaishajya-sèna, they must exert effort.' He said, 'Blessed One, which exertion of effort?' The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, listen. What is called 'effort' is the demonstration of results. It is as follows: what is called 'the result of stream entry' is a place of effort, what is called 'the result of once-returning' is a place of effort, what is called 'the result of non-returning' is a place of effort, what is called 'the result of arhatship and the cessation that is the result of an arhat' is a place of effort. What is called 'the result of a pratyèka-buddha and the knowledge of the result of a pratyèka-buddha' is a place of effort. What is called 'the result of a bodhisattva and the place of enlightenment' is a place of effort. Bhaishajya-sèna, these are what are called 'places of effort' He said, 'Blessed One, how are a stream enterer and the result of stream entry to be shown?' The Blessed One said: 'it is as follows: to make an analogy, one man planted a tree, and on that very day the tree took root, and on that very day same day those roots went down a yójana. Another man too, planted a tree in same way. But on that very day, it was shaken by the wind and that tree did not take root. Then this man removed the tree from that place, and also the other man said: why did you dig up my earth? And they quarreled and disputed. After that, at that time the king heard that those two men were quarreling and disputing, and he sent a messenger saying, 'go and bring those two men' the messenger say those two men, 'the king summons you!' at that, one of the men became frightened and apprehensive. But the other man, without fear or apprehension, was led to where the king was. After they had been led there, they were seated in the presence of the king. Then the king said to the two men, 'sirs, why were you quarreling and disputing?' At that, the two men arose and adressed the king: 'great king, please lend us your ear. Since we do not own any land at all, a tree was planted on a plot of borrowed land.


After that, because it was shaken by the wind, it did not put down roots, and neither leaves nor flowers nor fruit appeared. Great king, its roots did not go down a yójana. And this man fought and disputed with me, saying, 'it's your fault.' nevertheless, since i am innocent, your majesty, please kindly understand that i am not even slightly guilty.' then that king sent for his thirty million ministers, and when they had assembled, he commanded, 'you should speak' The ministers said, 'what should we speak about?' , 'Have you ever seen or heard that on the very day a tree was planted, it put down roots, and leaves, flowers and fruit appeared? In a week or half a month, make a determination of this case.' At that, those ministers arose from their seats and adressed the king: 'great king, it is not appropriate for us to make a determination in this case. We are incapable of determining it. Great king this is wondrous. For now, this man himself should be spoken to, 'sir, is what was said true? Speak.' He said, 'great king, indeed, it is true' The king said: 'on the very day a tree was planted, roots went down. And leaves, flowers and fruit appeared on that very day, you say- These words of yours are hard to beleive, no such thing has been seen or heard.' At that, the man placed palms together and spoke these words before the king: 'kindly go, and plant a tree yourself please watch as the roots take hold,' Then the king and the thirty million ministers went out together, and the two men were placed a tree, and that tree neither took root, nor did leaves, flowess or fruit appear. So the king became enraged and said, 'you go quickly; come back with axes for felling trees.' They were fetched and, engaged at the tree planted by that man, he cut the leaves, flowers and fruit that had arisen on that tree. As soon as he cut that single tree, twelve trees appeared. He cut the twelve trees, and there appeared twenty-four trees made of the seven precious substances, together with roots leaves and shoots, then, from those twenty-four trees there appeared twenty-four birds with golden Crests and golden beaks and feathers made of the seven precious substances. At that, the king was overcome with rage and taking the ax in his own hand, chopped at a tree. From the tree that he had chopped, nectar appeared. The king was troubled by that and issued instructions, 'go and remove those two men from prison.' 'As you command, your majesty!' He raced off that very instant the two men were removed from the prison and led to where the trees were. The king said: 'did you plant the tree that multiplied when it was cut and became twenty-four? The tree i planted did not grow roots or leaves or flowers or fruit.' Then that man said, 'great king, you are not endowed with the sort of merit i have.' At that the thirty million ministers knelt, placing both knees on the ground, and said to the man, 'This previous king is not fit. Therefore you should be king.' Then tha man adressed the ministers in verse: A king's enjoyment is of no use to me, nor have i need of weath or grain. Since in the Buddhas i have faith, among humans may i become supreme!, may i go where the tathagata is,to the sphere of nirvana, which is peace. The Dharma that leads home to nirvana: that should be explained to you. Seating himself cross-logged, he then made this avowal: due to actions i did in the past, i came to be in the king's jail. But by uttering this prayer may my karma be depleted.' At that, twenty-four million birds with diamond beaks struck cymbals. Then at tha time, at that moment, 32,000 towering palaces appeared. Each of the towering palaces measured twenty-five yojanas, and from each towering palace, there emerged twenty-five million birds, with golden crest and golden beaks and golden faces.' they uttered human speech: when you, Oh ! king cut that tree, the deed that you did was not good. In place of a hundred million trees, there came to be just twenty-four. You did not know what sort of being is the one who plante this tree. Due to this wicked act, you will later undergo unpleasant results. The king said: 'i do not know the meaning of this thus, great ascetic, please explain.' The birds said: it is he who illuminates the world and will become its guide. From the prison that is samsara, he liberates all beings.' The king said: 'The person whose tree did not grow, that second person, who was he? What was he? What wicked action did he do? Twice-born Birds, let it be told. The birds said: the person whose tree did not grow that was the foolish Deva-dátta. Not having done even slight virtues, how is a person's tree to grow?. Then at that time, at that moment, after the thirty million ministers heard this dharma paryaya, they were all established on the ten grounds. They each gained clairvoyance. The king too was established on the ten grounds and attained a clear realization of virtuous Dharma'. Then the bodhisattva, the great Bhaishajya-sèna said to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, due to what cause and what condition have the thirty-three million ministers come to abide on the ten ground and gain clairvoyance?'.The Blessed One said, Bhaishajya-sèna, listen and i will explain'. And then at that time, the Blessed One displayed a smile. After that, at that time, from the rays of light of many varied colors, 84,000 rays of hundreds of thousands of colors, such as blue, yellow, red, white, crimson, crystal and silver light rays. They came forth and lit up limitless, boundless world systems. When they returned, they circumanbulated the Blessed One three times and disappeared into the crown of the head of the Blessed one. At that, the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna arose, place his upper robe over one shoulder, set his right knee on the ground, bowed with his palms together toward the Blessed One and said the following to the Blessed One: "Blessed One, since tathagatas, arhat, perfect and complete buddha do not smile without cause and without conditions, what is the cause of the smile and what are the conditions?' The Blessed One said, 'Bhaishajya-sèna, do you see groups of beings from all the world systems of the four directions coming toward me?'.He said: 'Blessed One, i do not see them'. The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, in that case, examine carefully and look at the groups of beings'. Then the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna looked all about, and he saw that to the east there appeared a tree measuring some 7,000 yojánas. Twenjy-five thousand million groups of people were assembled on one side of it. The people did not speak. They did not talk. They did not converse. They did not eat. They did not arise. They did not move about. They sat in silence. To the south, there appeared a tree measuring some 7,000 yojánas. Twenty-five thousand million groups of people were assembled by it. These people did not talk and did not speak either. They did not speak at all. They did not converse at all. They did not arise. They did not move about, they sat in silence. To the west, there appeared a tree measuring some 7,000 yojánas. Twenty-five thousand million groups of people were assembled by it. These people did not talk and did not speak either. They did not speak at all. They did not converse at all. They did not arise. They did not move about, they sat in silence. To the north there appeared a tree measuring some 7,000 yojánas. Twenty-five thousand million groups of people were assembled by it. These people did not talk and did not speak either. They did not speak at all. They did not converse at all. They did not arise. They did not move about, they sat in silence. In the downward direction, there appeared a tree measuring some 7,000 yojánas. Twenty-five thousand million groups of people were assembled by it. These people did not talk and did not speak either. They did not speak at all. They did not converse at all. They did not arise. They did not move about, they sat in silence. In the upward direction, there appeared a tree measuring some 7,000 yojánas. Twenty-five thousand million groups of people were assembled by it. These people did not talk and did not speak either. They did not speak at all. They did not converse at all. They did not arise. They did not move about, they sat in silence. Thereupon the bodhisattva, the great Bhaishajya-sèna said to the Blessed One: 'if the Blessed One would grant me the opportunity to pose a question and hen have it explained, i would like to ask a question of the Blessed One, the tathagata, the arhat, the perfect and complete Buddha, regarding a certain point in question'. He said this and the Blessed One spoke to the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna as follows: 'Bhaishajya-sèna whatever you wish, and i will delight your mind with an explanation of whatever is asked'. He spoke thus, and the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna said the following to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, for what purpose did many groups of people from the worlds in the four directions come and remain here, and then from between the lower and upper directions, 50,000 million groups of beings came and remain here. What is the reason for this? What are the conditions?' The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna , go yourseld and ask the tathagatas in the world systems from which they came'. He said: 'through the production of whose supernatural power should i go?'. The Blessed one said: 'produce you own supernatural power and through that'. Then the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaichajya-sèna circumanbulated the Blessed One three times and disappeared right there. After passing ninety-six million world system, he arrived at the world system called Chandra-pradipa. There, the Blessed One, the tathagata, the Arhat, the perfect and complete buddha Chandravati-kshètra was teaching the Dharma, seated in front and completely surrounded by 80,000 million bodhisattvas. Then the bodhisattva, the great bein Bhashajya-sèna remained before the Blessed One, the tathagata Chandravati-kshètra, with his palms together he bowed down toward the Blessed One and then said to the Blessed One, 'Blessed One why is it that i do not see here presently the groups of people who are presently gathering from the ten directions and coming into the presence of the Shakyamuni tathagata in the Saha world system?'. The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna they wander about and abide right there'. He said: 'but, Blessed One, how is that?'. At that, the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna went up to where the tathagata Chandravati-kshètra was. Once he had arrived, he sat before that tathagata he said the following to the Blessed One: "Blessed One, i passed 96,000 million world systems and have come here and, Blessed One, nowhere have i seen as many sentient being as those that are seen there". The Blessed One said: 'those sentient beings arose from mindless trees'. He said: 'Blessed One, who has seen or heard of arising from trees that have no mind?'. The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, have you not seen or heard of the arising of people from mindless trees?'. He said: 'Blessed One, i have not seen or heard of that'. The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, if you wish to see, i will show you now'. He said: 'Blessed One, i wish to. Sugata, i wish to'. Thereupon the tathagata Chandravati-kshètra etended his arm and from that arm 100,000 million groups of beings arose. Each of those groups of people extended one hundred arm and scattered incence, garlands and variour lotions as offerings to the tathagata, and the Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, do you see this groups of people scattering incense, garlands and lotions as offerings to the tathagata?'. He said: 'Blessed One, i see them. Sugata, i see them'. The Blessed One said: ' these groups of beings who arose are mindless. These people are mindless'. Then each of those 100,000 million human being had 100 arms, and they all fell down. Then when the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna had seen that, he said to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, what is this? Sugata, what is this, that people hudred arms fall down in an instant, too? Blessed One, if even the hundred-armed ones are not liberated what need is ther to mention those with two arms?'. The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, similarly, the sentient beings are born mindlessly. They cease mindlessly. Bhaishajya-sèna, you should know that this body also comes about mindlessly'. He said: 'Blessed One, regarding these sentient beings, which are young? Which are old?'. The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, there are young sentient beings, and there are also old sentient beings'. He said:'Blessed One, which are young? Which are old?' The Blessed One said: 'those who were falling down just now are old. Those who were born from the trees are young'. He said: 'Blessed One, i wish to see the young sentient beings'. At that, the tathagata Chandravati-kshètra extended the palms of his right hand, and thereupon there came 100,000 million groups of people from each of the ten directions. From the lower and upper directions, there came fifty million groups of people each. When these groups of people had arrived, they prostrated with their heads at the feet of the Blessed One. After that, they did not speak to the tathagata. They did not speak at all. They sat in silence. Then the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna said to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, why is it that these sentient beings do not speak to the Blessed One, do not speak at all an remain without speaking?'. The Blessed One said: "Bhaishajya-sèna, do not understand? The land is mindless, and it does not speak at all and it does not understand the heap of Dharma either.


If you should wonder why that is so, Bhaishajya-sèna, some young sentient beings here do not understand birth, although they have seen it. Cessation, aging, sickness, sorrow, weeping, separation from loved ones, coming into contact with what is unpleasant, parting with friends, dying, untimely death--- They do not understand any of these unbearable, suffering. Even though they have seen them, they are not moved and revoted by them, so how could they possibly understand them? Bhaishajya-sèna , they must be taught again and again" at that, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna said this to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, from where have these young sentient beings who do not know the Dharma come? From where did they migrate at death, and where will they be born?' The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, listen. These human bodies that they have received were not made by a jeweler. They were not made by a coppersmith. They were not made by a carpenter. They were not made by a potter. They were not made out of fear of a king. Rather, they arise from the union of a man and woman, and from the possession of bad karma. Those sentient beings too taugh a trade again and again, and because of that, endless, unbearable suffering and unbearable feeling arise. In that, they experience the ripening of wicked, non-virtuous actions done previously. Bhaishajya-sèna, , in this place, these sentient beings who have come here and are not rising up will feel these sorts of suffering. Bhaishajya-sèna, for this reason they do not speak, they do not speak at all. Bhaishajya-sèna, that being so, these young sentient beings do not understand virtue. They do not understand birth. They do not understand cessation. They will not attain human bodies even, and these. Bhaishajya-sèna, are what are called 'young sentient beings'. He said: 'Blessed One, how are these young sentient beings born? How do they cease?'. The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna it is as follows: to make an analogy, some man might bring a piece of wood into contact with fire. Just as that wood would gradually catch on fire, in the same way,Bhaishajya-sèna, one is initially born into a human body. After birth, one then experiences sensations'. He said: 'Blessed one, who is actually born here? After birth, who completely passes beyond?' The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna the Buddha himself is born. The tathagata himself completely passes beyond. It is as follows: to make an analogy, the king puts some man in bondage and imprisons him in a dark and gloomy building. After the man enters that gloomy building, once inside that gloomy buiding. Then another man who has previously been affected by some experience of suffering sees this and thinks: 'this man is ill-suited for this. Because he has not experienced suffering previously, it will kill him. Reflecting on this, he took fire and went there and left a slight bit of fire behind in that house. The man who had been put in that jail saw the fire, and when he saw it, he was consoled and cheered up. But that fire for some reason flared up, and this blazing fire completely burnt up that house, and the man was also burnt up right there. Then, when the king heard that he had been burnt, he was displeased. He thought, 'from now on, no sentient beings will be put in prison in my land'. Thinking, in this way, the king then said to the sentient beings dwelling in his land: 'Oh, you sentient beings, have no fear, do not be afraid. You should not fear. From now on, in my land, there will be no corporal punishment or imprisonment. No sentient being will be deprived of life. Oh, sentient beings, have no fear'. Just as he reassured them, so too, Bhaishajya-sèna, the tathagata, who has burnt up all the delusions, has entirely pacified all illness. Just as that man burned his own body too through the burning of the building, and havini set out for the sake of sentient beings' aims, benefit and happiness, he completely liberates sentient beings who are bound from their bondage, likewise too the tathagata abandoned the stains of attachment, anger and ignorance, and having arisen in the world like a lamp for all sentient beings, he completely liberate sentient beings from bodies of hell beings, animals, pretas and asuras, and he also completely liberates young sentient beings and old sentient beings, too'. At that, these verses emerged from the space above; the Conqueror's field is a wondrous field, a wholesome field and well-prepared. Any seed planted in it will not go to waste at all. The Conqueror's field is a pure land. The teachings of the Buddha are praised. In order to embrace all beings, the teacher also makes the means. Though he abides in the sphere of nirvana, he appears upon the face of the earth. After perpetually pacifying the world, Buddha purifies the object given. He liberates the young beings. He liberates the old beings, too. From the three realms, gradually, he frees all beings completely. He closes the doors to the hells. He liberates animals and pretas. Having made peace in this world, he creates happiness in the next. Then the Blessed One displayed a smile and said: it is excellent to see those who are and seeing Buddhas is excellent. The holy Dharma, a field of qualities- this also excellent, to see the Sangha assembled is excellent, the teaching of the Sangha is also excellent. Destroying misdeeds is excellent. At that, the bodhisattvas, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna bowed down with his palms together toward the Blessed One and said to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, what is the reason for smiling? What are the conditions?'. The Blessed One said: 'Child of the lineage, do you see these young sentient beings?' He said: 'Blessed One, i see them. Sugata, i see them'.The Blessed One said: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, all of them will be established on the ten grounds on this very day'. Then the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna remains in the sky above at a height of 80,000 yójanas, and 80,000 million devas release a rain of flowers on the Blessed One. The young sentient beings too make prostrations with palms joined then the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna said these words while remaining in the sky above. He fills the galaxy of a billion world systems with sound. The sentient beings born in the thirty-two great hell hear the sound. The thirty-two types of devas hear that sound. The galaxy of a billion world systems also trembled in six ways. In the great oceans, 84,000 nagas were shaken. Thirty thousand million rakshasas came to this planet. Twenty-five thousand million pretas, yakshas and rakshasas came from the royal city of Adákavati, and this huge assembly gathered before the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One taught the Dharma to the young sentient beings, and 100,000 million bodhisattva came from the world systems of the ten directions, each by thier own supernatural power. At that, the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna bowed down placing his palms together toward the Blessed One and said to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, many are the bodhisattvas that have gathered and are here. Sugata there are many Blessed One, many too are the devas and nagas that have gathered and are here. From the royal city of Adákavati many millions of rakshasas also arrived assembled and are here'Then the Blessed One said to the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna: 'child of the lineage, come down'. At that, the bodhisattva, the great being Bhaishajya-sèna descended from the space above by supernatural powers, placed his palms together and bowed down toward the Blessed One the Blessed One. He said to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, the mass of Dharma, the mass of Dharma that is ppoken of, Blessed One, of what extent is this 'mass of Dharma?'. The Blessed One said: 'child of the lineage, it is called the 'mass of Dharma' when one unequivocally strives for celibacy and also when, having unequivocally striven for celibacy, one abandons all wikedness. Child of the lineage, do you see the young being who, having abandoned impure conduct, will undoubtedly attain dharani and will also all become endowed with all the Dharma'. He said: 'Blessed One, by what means are all these many sentient beings gathering and listening to the mass of Dharma?'. At that, the Blessed One said to the bodhisattva, the great Bhaishajya-sèna: 'Bhaishajya-sèna, most sentient beings do not hear that birth as such is suffering. They do not hear that aging as is suffering. They do not hear that sickness as such is suffering, that sorrow is suffering, weeping is suffering, separation from loved ones and coming into contact with what is disagreable is suffering. Death, after all these sufferings, steals away body and life. Bhaishajya-sèna, these are what are called 'all suffering'.Then those young sentient being, having heard this teaching, bowed down with their palms together toward the Blessed One and said to the Blessed One: 'Blessed One, we too will die?' The Blessed One said: 'you and all sentient beings will die'. They said: "Blessed One, how will our time of death bear down on us?". The Blessed One said: 'children of the lineage, at the time of death, at the last moment of consciousness, there is a wind called "causing cessation of consciousness", and a wind called "confusing the consciousness" and a wind called "disturbing the consciousness", and, children of the lineage, at that time of death, in the final moment of consciousness, these three winds will stir up, they will confuse and they will cause disturbances'. They said: 'Blessed One, what are the three wind that destroy the body at the time of death, when the consciousness ceases?. The Blessed One said: "friends, "weapon", "compelling" and "injuring" cause the destruction of the body'. They said: "Blessed One, what sort of thing is this that called "the body?" the Blessed One said: "friends, it is also called "completely ablaze", "burnt", "mucus", "belching", "cremation ground", "vile mind", "a heavy burden", "tortured by birth", "violently shaken by birth", "tormanting on's life-force", and "causing death and separation from loved ones" friends, these are what is called "the body". They said: "Blessed One, how does one die? How does live on?" The Blessed One said: "friends, what is called "consciousness" dies.


Long-lived ones, what is called "merit" live on. Friends, what is called "the body" dies, bound with millions of sinews, endowed with 84,000 pores, connected with 12,000 parts and supported by 360 bones. Eighty-four types of parasites, live inside the body. And there is death for all these living beings; there is death, which is cessation. When a person dies, all those living beings also have their hopes dashed. Then, because all the living beings eat one another, this moves and disturbs the winds. At that time they will experience suffering. Some will grieve for their sons. Some will grieve for their daughter. Some will grieve for their companions. They will all be pierced by agonizing pains. They will try to eat one another, and then when they have eaten one another, two living beings are left and these two fight for seven days. After seven days have passed, one living being is destroyed. The other is freed. "Long-lived ones, if you should wonder what it is that called "Dharma" what do you think? Just as these living beings clashed with one another and then died, in the same way, childish ordinary individuals also clash with one another. They are not frightened by birth, they are not frightened by aging. They are not frightened by sickness. They are not frightened by death just as two living beings fought, so too do childish ordinary individuals fight one another.Then, at the time of death, virtuous people say to them: "person, in what are you trusting? Have you seen even the slightest shortcomings? Have you not seen the shortcomings of birth? Have you not seen the shortcomings aging and sickness? Have you not seen the shortcomings of the death? They said: "long-lived one, we have seen the shortcomings of birth, and we have seens the shortcomings of aging and sikness. We have seen the shortcomings of death too, at the end of it all'. They said: 'why did you not engage in activities to create roots of virtue? Why did you not create the roots of virtue of the mass of Dharma that increases happiness in both worlds?. Friends, i ask a second time: why did you not create the collection of virtue that would emancipate you completely from birth and death? Why did you not make any investigation as to where you should correctly direct your attention? How did you not hear the sound of the beating of the gong on the earth?. Have you not seen the sowing of seeds in the field of the tathagata and the giving of incense, garlands and lamps? Have you not seen as well the offering of food and drink to the tathagata, or the contentment of the four groups of followers- bhikshus, bhikshunis, male holders of lay percepts and female holders of lay percept- these four groups of followers who are fully devoted to the teachings?'. They would speak like that to him and make accusptions in order to benefit him, and 'your majesty, you did not do even the slightest thing'.


<chapter VI>
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